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Online Books

This section contains free e-books and guides on Astronomy, some of the resources in this section can be viewed online and some of them can be downloaded.

Astronomy Books
Online Books
Essential Radio Astronomy

Online | NA Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: What is Radio Astronomy, Early Radio Astronomy, The Radio Universe, Radiation Fundamentals: Brightness and Flux, Radiative Transfer, Blackbody Radiation, Larmor's Formula, CMB Radiation, Antenna Fundamentals, Reflector Antennas, Filled Apertures, Radio Telescopes, Radiometers, Interferometers, Thermal Emission, Nonthermal Emission, Pulsars and Spectral Lines.

 
Fundamentals of Astronomy

Online | NA Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: Coordinates, Seasons, Eclipses, Orbital motions, gravity, Celestial mechanics, space missions, Electromagnetic Radiation, Global properties of planets, Matter in thermodynamic equilibrium, Terrestrial planets, Gas giant planets, Pluto, Small bodies in the Solar System, Telescopes and Detectors for UV, Visible, and Infrared Radiation, Telescopes and Detector for X-ray and radio radiation, Stellar Structure and Energy Production, Introduction to the Milky Way, Star Clusters, Extra-solar planets, formation of planetary systems, life in the Universe, Structure and Dynamics of the Milky Way, Distances to galaxies, properties of normal galaxies, Galaxy clusters, large scale structure, galaxy evolution, Models of the Universe, cosmic background radiation, Evolution of the Universe, Inflation.

 
The Elements of Astronomy, Or, The World as it Is, and as it Appears

Online | 381 Pages | English
As such a book, The Elements of Astronomy, or the World as it is, and as it appears, is offered by a teacher to the teaching and studying public. Had the writer aimed only to excite an interest in the subject, it would have been shorter and more attractive , but it is intended, likewise, to exercise the student's memory, reason, and imagination.

 
Elementary Astronomy

PDF | 134 Pages | English
The book presents a simplified view of astronomy. Equations have been minimized, numbers have been rounded, and the black-and-white diagrams can be easily reproduced on a chalkboard which is where most of them originated. (Nice color images of planets, moons, and such do not appear here, as they can easily be found on the web.) Terms are explained in the chapters, as needed, and also collected in the glossary at the end of the book. This note covers the following topics: introduction, earth, moon, and sun, gravity and orbits, earth motions and seasons, moon motions and phases, eclipses, the solar system, planet properties, motions of the night sky, constellations and star charts and conclusion.

 
Notes on Stellar Astrophysics

PDF | 299 Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: overview, radiative transfer, atomic structure, thermodynamic equilibrium, stellar spectra, line profiles, opacity sources, stellar atmospheres, stellar interior models, energy generation and transport, degeneracy, stellar synthesis, sequels to the main sequence, evolutionary endpoints and evolution conclusions.

 
An Introduction to Astronomy

PDF | 518 Pages | English
Forest Ray Moulton was an American astronomer.In this book he explains all the fundamental principles in astronomy.

 
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Online | 82 Pages | English
In this new book, a distinguished panel makes recommendations for the nation's programs in astronomy and astrophysics, including a number of new initiatives for observing the universe.

 
Exploring Black Holes General Relativity and Astrophysics

Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Einstein's field equations, x-ray binaries and the search for black holes, the universe, cosmic structure formation; From inflation to galaxies.

 
Astrophysics II

Online | NA Pages | English
Covered topics are: What is a Galaxy?, Gravitational Potentials, Orbits in Spherical Potentials and Integrals, Orbits in Axisymmetric Potentials, Epicyclic Approximation, Equilibria of Stellar Systems, Boltzmann Equation, Jeans' Equations in Spherical Coordinates, Jeans' Equations Applied, Jeans' Theorem, Stability: Jeans Mass and Spiral Structure, Gravitational Mirages (aka lenses) via Fermat's Principle, Applied Gravitational Lensing, Weak Lensing, Clusters of Galaxies, The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect, Cosmological Parameters, Growing Modes in Expanding Universes: Jeans Redux.

 
Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics

HTML | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: general data, astronomy and astrophysics, radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, xray astronomy, gammaray astronomy, cosmic rays, earths atmosphere and environment, relativity, atomic physics, electromagnetic radiation, plasma physics, experimental astronomy and astrophysics, aeronautics and astronautics, mathematics, statistics, radiation safety and astronomical catalogs.

 
Galaxy Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies (PDF 16P)

PDF | 16 Pages | English
Our knowledge on the central components of disk galaxies has grown substantially in the past few decades, particularly so in the last. This frantic activity and the complexity of the subject promote confusion in the community. In these notes the author discuss the concept of galactic bulge and its different flavors. This also address fundamental scaling relations and the bulge-elliptical galaxy connection, their central black holes and formation models. In particular, this book aims at conveying three important notions: box peanuts are just the inner parts of bars; the physical reality of two different families of bulges is evident and  at the high mass end, at least, classical bulges are not just scaled down ellipticals surrounded by disks.

 
Basic Mathematics for Astronomy (PDF 34P)

PDF | 32 Pages | English
Each section in this manual begins with a description of each set of skills. You should read these descriptions and if you fully understand the concepts, try some of the sample problems. If you score well, move on to the next section. However, if you find that you do need to rethink these concepts, then study the description carefully and do all of the exercises section. The questions in the exercises section go more in depth than multiple choice exam questions will, but doing them will help you think through and master the concepts. Answers for all of the exercise questions are provided in the last section. Only use these answers after you are done with the exercise questions (looking at the answers ahead of time will not help you learn). Finally, the last part of each section is example exam questions. These are the types of questions you can expect to find on multiple choice exams related to these skills.

 
Detection of Ether

PDF | 164 Pages | English
This book explains the following topics: Stanford Linear Accelerator Experiment, Hafele Keating Experiment, The Anemometer Metaphor, The Moving Target Laws, Secular Aberration, Lunar Laser Ranging Experiments, Photoelectric Effect, the Compton Effect and Blackbody Radiation, General Relativity and the Ether, Aberration and Ether, Atmospheric Refraction and Ether, The De Witte Effect.

 
Notes on Astronomy

Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Basic Data, Galaxies, Cosmology, Particle Physics, Spectroscopy and Astrostatistics.

 
Survey of Astronomy Lecture Notes

Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Structure of the Universe, Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo, and Kepler, Newtonian Dynamics and Gravitation, Celestial Sphere, Motions of the Moon and Eclipses, Objects and Events in the Heavens, Thermal Radiation and Spectroscopy, Telescopes in Astronomy, Origin of Our Solar System, Solar Energy, Solar Activity and Sun-Earth Connection, Life Cycle of a Star, White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars, Black Holes, Properties of Galaxies & Hubble's Law, Origin and Evolution of the Universe.

 
The Search for Life in the Universe

Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Drake Equation, Influence of the Sun on Earth, Why the Sun Shines, Lives of the Stars, Overview of the Solar System, The Habitable Zone, Nature of Biological Evolution, Exoplanets, What makes a Planet Habitable and Lifetimes of Civilizations.

 
Astronomy Basics (PDF 35P)

PDF | 35 Pages | English
This article covers the following topics: motion of the Star, latitude scale, pointing at Polaris, finding north celestial pole, Polar alignment in the southers hemisphere.

 
Space Based Astronomy (PDF 103P)

PDF | 103 Pages | English
This guide help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy, astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

 
Cosmology Primer

Online | NA Pages | English
This guide provides the basic picture of modern cosmology. The intended audience includes anyone with curiosity about science; no technical background is assumed. Covered topics are: The Expanding Universe, The Evolving Universe, Luminous Universe, Dark Universe, Early Universe and Measured Universe.

 
Galaxies

Online | NA Pages | English
This guide covers the following topics: Our own Galaxy - the Milky Way, Spiral and elliptical galaxies, Galaxy clusters and large-scale structure, The dark matter of the Universe and origin of large-scale structure.

 
Cosmic Background Radiation

Online | NA Pages | English
This guide covers the following topics: Relic radiation from the primeval fireball, The temperature of the Universe today, Ripples at the edge of the Universe and origin of fluctuations in the CBR.

 
Cosmic Strings and other defects

Online | NA Pages | English
This guide covers the following topics: Phase transitions in the early universe, Cosmic strings and other topological defects, Cosmic string dynamics and evolution, High-resolution cosmic string simulations, Cosmic strings and large-scale structure, Texture models and large-scale structure.

 
THE HOT BIG BANG MODEL

Online | NA Pages | English
This guide covers the following topics: This note introduces the Big Bang cosmology and its successes, while emphasising its incompleteness and the areas in which Cambridge Relativity group members are working. A brief history of observational cosmology, A brief history of our Universe, The four pillars of the Hot Big Bang model, Shortcomings of the standard cosmology.

 
Ned Wright's Cosmology Tutorial

Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Observations of Global Properties, Homogeneity and Isotropy, Many Distances, Scale Factor, Spatial Curvature, Flatness-Oldness, Horizon, Inflation, Anisotropy and Inhomogeneity.

 
The Fundamentals of Stellar Astrophysics

Online | NA Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: Introduction and Fundamental Principles, Basic Assumptions, Theorems, and Polytropes, Sources and Sinks of Energy, Flow of Energy through the Star and Construction of Stellar Models, Theory of Stellar Evolution, Relativistic Stellar Structure, Structure of Distorted Stars, Stellar Pulsation and Oscillation, The Flow of Radiation Through the Atmosphere, Solution of the Equation of Radiative Transfer, Environment of the Radiation Field, Construction of a Model Stellar Atmosphere, Formation of Spectral Lines, Shape of Spectral Lines, Breakdown of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Beyond the Normal Stellar Atmosphere.

 
Stellar Atmospheres

Online | NA Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: Definitions of and Relations between Quantities used in Radiation Theory, Blackbody Radiation, The Exponential Integral Function, Flux, Specific Intensity and other Astrophysical Terms, Absorption, Scattering, Extinction and the Equation of Transfer, Limb Darkening, Atomic Spectroscopy, Boltzmann's and Saha's Equations, Oscillator Strengths, Line Profiles and Curve of Growth.

 
Astronomy The Solar System

Online | NA Pages | English
This book explains the following topics: Sense of Time and Scale in the Universe, Precursors to Modern Astronomy , Overview of the Sky and Planets, The Old Astronomy, Development of Modern Astronomy, Timekeeping and the Celestial Sphere, Overview of the Solar System, The Earth, The Earth's Moon, Planet Mercury, Planet Venus, Planet Mars, Planet Jupiter, Jovian Moons, Planet Saturn, Planet Uranus, Planet Neptune, Planet Pluto, Comets, Asteroids and Meteors.

 
Astronomy 162 Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology

Online | NA Pages | English
This book explains the following topics: Properties of Light, The Interaction of Light and Matter, Telescopes and Detectors, The Sun, a Nearby Star, Energy Production in Stars, Ordinary Stars, Stellar Distances, Stellar Motion, Multiple Star Systems, Star Clusters , The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Recipe for Stars, Protostars, Life on the Main Sequence, Variable Stars, The Death of Stars like the Sun, Ejection of the Envelope, White Dwarfs and Novae, Supernovae, Neutron Stars, Pulsars, Black Holes, The Milky Way Galaxy, The Galaxies, Active Galaxies, Groups, Clusters, and Superclusters of Galaxies, Cosmology and Life in the Universe.

 
Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology
Hyperdimensional Aether Model

Online | NA Pages | English
In this book the author provides an alternative view our universe based on the concept of an all pervading fluid like hyperdimensional aether. Covered topics are: Aether, Matter, Magnetism, Light, Gravity, Inertia, Free Energy, Antigravity and Relativity.

 
Astronomy lecture notes

PDF | 137 Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: cosmological Observations, Cosmological Principle, Geometry, Linearized General Relativity, Dynamics: a(t), Flatness-Oldness, Distant Objects, General formula for angular sizes, Number Counts, Gamma Ray Bursts, Evolution of Diffuse Backgrounds, Effects from Electron Scattering, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Last Scattering, Horizon Problem, Inflationary Scenario, Fluctuations from Inflation, Perturbations, Two Fluid Approximation, Acoustic Scale, Cluster of Galaxies, Gravitational Lensing.

 
Modern Observational Cosmology

NA | inflationary Pages | English


 
Superspace One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry
Astronomy 122 Birth and Death of Stars

Online | NA Pages | English
This note explains the following topics: Celestial Sphere, Matter & Energy , Light, Quantum Physics, Fundamental Forces, Telescopes Observatories, Stellar Properties, Stellar Types, Binary Stars, HR Diagram, Stellar Structure, Star Formation, stellar Evolution: MS and RGB, Stellar Death,  Neutron Stars, Relativity, Black Holes, Star Clusters,Interstellar Medium : Cold, Warm, Hot, Milky Way, Stellar Populations.

 
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