This note provides an
introduction to the basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in
medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Also discusses natural
and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, and
various physical, chemical, and biological processes and effects of radiation,
with examples of their uses, and principles of radiation protection.
note is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of
radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary
radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of
radiation have very different biological effects. Also explains the effects of
radiation on biological systems including DNA damage, in vitro cell survival
models and in vivo mammalian systems.
note explains the following topics: Classical Two-Body Kinematics, Special
Relativity, Particle-like Nature of Waves, Wave-like properties of Particles,
The Shrodinger equation, The Rutherford-Bohr model of the Atom, The Hydrogen
Atom, Many-Electron Atoms, Nuclear Properties, Force Between Nucleons,
The study of radiation
effects has developed as a major field of materials science from the beginning,
approximately 70 years ago. Its rapid development has been driven by two strong
influences. The properties of the crystal defects and the materials containing
them may then be studied. The book is distributed in four sections: Ionic
Materials; Biomaterials; Polymeric Materials and Metallic Materials.